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Particles and Forces: Beyond the Standard Model

Experiment after experiment has tried to find flaws in the Standard Model's predictions, but so far all the experimental evidence supports it. Nevertheless, scientists do not believe that the Standard Model provides complete answers to all our questions about matter.

For example, data from astrophysics, cosmology, and nuclear and particle physics experiments suggest that the neutrinos might, in fact, have mass, despite the Standard Model's description of these leptons as massless particles. Although the Standard Model now assigns zero mass to neutrinos, it does not rule out the possibility that they might have mass. New experiments at Fermilab are designed to test this possibility, to "weigh" the neutrino. Physicists will design the experiments to look for evidence of neutrino mass in the mass ranges suggested by results of earlier experiments. If experimenters do find evidence for neutrino mass, such a discovery would not only have profound implications for our understanding of cosmology but might also provide a clue to physics beyond the Standard Model.

The discoveries of the past few years have brought us to a deeper understanding of matter and energy, but difficult questions remain: Why does matter have mass? What accounts for the enormous preponderance--crucial to the existence of the universe--of matter over antimatter? What is the invisible matter that accounts for so much of the universe that we cannot see? Are there forces and particles as yet undiscovered? The experiments of the future will explore these questions, in the long, continuing search to understand the nature of matter and energy, space and time.

  • Chart of the Standard Model
  • More information on the Standard Model