Muon Storage Ring Neutrino Sources:
A Brief History/Bibliography

A. Early History: Muon storage ring source in which energetic pions are injected into a ring, decay to produce muons captured within the ring, which in turn decay -> neutrino beam. This idea was proposed several times, but has the basic problem that the neutrino beam intensity is low.

1.  D. G. Koshkarev, "Proposal for a decay ring to produce
    intense secondary particle beams at the SPS", 
    CERN/ISR-DI/74-62, 1974.
    Synopsis: Proposed a general ring to capture pi/K and 
    allow them to decay. Considered neutrino beams, including
    those from the muon decays. Calculated fluxes, although 
    not with the correct expressions for muon decay. The fluxes
    were very small. Physics motivation not considered.

2.  D. Cline and D. Neuffer, "A muon storage ring for neutrino
    oscillation experiments", AIP Conf. Proc.. 68, 846 (1980).
    Synopsis: Proposed exploiting the FNAL antiproton debuncher
    as a muon decay neutrino source with a 100 ton detector 0.5 km 
    from the source. Quotes event rate. Does not consider physics 
    potential. Ascribes idea to: 
2a. Stan Wojcicki, unpublished (1974), and 
2b. T. Collins, unpublished (1975).
3.  W. Lee (spokesperson) et al., FNAL Proposal P860, "A Search for
    neutrino oscillations using the Fermilab Debuncher", 1992.
    Synopsis: Proposed experiment at the FNAL antiproton debuncher
    as a muon decay neutrino source for a short baseline search for
    nu_e -> nu_tau oscillations. Considered physics case, and presented
    fluxes and interaction rates. However, these were marginal, and
    the experiment was not approved.

B. Modern Ideas: The neutrino factory. Muons are created from an intense pion source at low energies, their phase space compressed to produce a bright beam which is then accelerated to the desired energy and injected into a storage ring with long straight sections pointing in the desired direction. This can produce very high intensity neutrino beams.

1.  S. Geer, "Neutrino beams from muon storage rings: characteristics
    and physics potential", FERMILAB-PUB-97-389, 1997; Presented in 
    the Workshop on Physics at the First Muon Collider and Front-End
    of a Muon Collider, November, 1997, and Published in 
    Synopsis: Proposed using a  muon source of the type being developed
    for muon colliders, coupled with a muon storage ring neutrino source.
    Calculated fluxes and rates versus baseline length, muon energy, angles,
    and polarization. Considered oscillation physics potential. Proposed 
    tilting the ring at large angle to shoot through the Earth. Proposed
    searching for nu_e -> nu_mu and nu_tau oscillations by searching for
    wrong-sign muons. Proposed exploiting the muon polarization to turn 
    on/off nu_e processes. Rates large and physics reach interesting.
    Pointed out that at high energies, event rates are very large enabling
    neutrino physics with small and highly instrumented detectors.

2.  C. Johnstone, "High intensity muon storage rings for neutrino 
    production: Lattice design",  Presented in 
    the Workshop on Physics at the First Muon Collider and Front-End
    of a Muon Collider (November 1997), FERMILAB-TM-2036, May 1998.
    Synopsis: Described a storage ring design capable of realizing 
    the beams described in Phys.Rev.D57:6989-6997,1998.

3.  C. Ankenbrandt, S. Geer; "Accelerator scenario and parameters for
    the first muon collider and front-end of a muon collider", 
    FERMILAB-CONF-98-086, Mar 1998.
    Synopsis: Described the scenario set for the "Workshop on physics 
    at the first muon collider and front-end of a muon collider", and 
    proposed using the muon accelerator rings (RLAs) for a muon collider
    as a neutrino source. Presented the very large neutrino rates pulse 
    by pulse.

4.  D. Harris and K. McFarland; "Detectors for neutrino physics at the 
    first muon collider", MIT-LNS-98-276, Nov 1997; hep-ex/9804009.
    Synopsis: Described compact highly instrumented detector ideas 
    that could exploit neutrino rates in the scenario described in 
    FERMILAB-CONF-98-086. See also: B. King, hep-ex/9907033.

5.  J. Ellis, E. Keil, G. Rolandi, "Options for future colliders at CERN",
    CERN-EP-98-03, Jan 1998.
    B. Autin et al. "Physics opportunities at a CERN based neutrino factory",
    CERN-SPSC-98-30, Oct 1998.
    D. Finley, S. Geer, J. Sims; "Muon Colliders: A Vision for the Future 
    of Fermilab", FERMILAB-TM-2072, Jun 1999.
    Synopsis: These reports first proposed neutrino factories as a first step
    towards a muon collider.

6.  A. Bueno, M. Campanelli, A. Rubbia; "Long baseline neutrino oscillation 
    disappearance search using a neutrino beam from muon decays", 
    ETHZ-IPP-PR-98-05, Aug 1998; hep-ph/9808485.
    A. Bueno, M. Campanelli, A. Rubbia; "A medium baseline search for 
    nu_mu -> nu_e oscillations at a neutrino beam from muon decays",
    CERN-EP-98-140, Sep 1998; hep-ph/9809252.
    Synopsis: Based on the ideas in Phys.Rev.D57:6989-6997,1998 proposed 
    an oscillation experiment at CERN. 

7.  S. Geer, C. Johnstone, D. Neuffer; "Muon Storage Ring Neutrino Source: 
    The Path to a Muon Collider ?", FERMILAB-TM-2073, Mar 1999.
    S. Geer, C. Johnstone, D. Neuffer; "Design concepts for a muon storage 
    ring neutrino source", FERMILAB-PUB-99-121, Apr 1999.
    Synopsis: These reports were early design summaries that further 
    established the approximate neutrino fluxes that might be achieved 
    with a muon storage ring neutrino source.

8.  B. Autin, A. Blondel, J. Ellis (editors); "Prospective Study of Muon 
    Storage Rings at CERN", CERN 99-02, April 1999.
    Synopsis: First group-type study report of physics at a neutrino factory. 
    First indications that CP violation might not be completely out 
    of reach. 

9.  Pre-Lyon Physics papers based on rates in Phys.Rev.D57:6989-6997,1998.

  V. Barger, T. Weiler, K. Whisnant; hep-ph/9712495; Phys.Lett.B427:97-104,1998
  S. Bilenkii, C. Giunti, W. Grimus; hep-ph/9712537; Phys.Rev.D58:033001,1998 
  S. Geer, FERMILAB-CONF-97-417, Dec 1997.
  P. Langacker, J. Wang; hep-ph/9802383; Phys.Rev.D58:093004,1998.
  S. Gibbons, R. Mohapatra, S. Nandi, A. Raychaudhuri; hep-ph/9803299;
  Chris Quigg; FERMILAB-CONF-98-073-T, Nov 1997; hep-ph/9803326.
  V. Barger; MADPH-98-1040, Mar 1998; hep-ph/9803480 .
  S. Geer; FERMILAB-CONF-98-063, Feb 1998.
  S.M. Bilenkii, C. Giunti, W. Grimus, T. Schwetz; UWTHPH-1998-19, Apr 1998;
  V. Barger, S. Pakvasa, T. Weiler, K. Whisnant; hep-ph/9806328;
  V. Barger, S. Pakvasa, T. Weiler, K. Whisnant; hep-ph/9806387;
  V. Barger, S. Pakvasa, T. Weiler, K. Whisnant; hep-ph/9807319;
  G. Barenboim, F. Scheck; hep-ph/9808327; Phys.Lett.B440:332,1998.
  V. Barger; MADPH-98-1068, Jul 1998; hep-ph/9808353.
  Y. Kuno, L. Littenberg; KEK-PREPRINT-98-108, Aug 1998.
  K. Zuber; hep-ex/9810022.
  Boris Kayser; hep-ph/9810513.
  J.M. Conrad; hep-ex/9811009.
  K. Zuber; hep-ph/9811267; Phys.Rept.305:295-364,1998.
  A. De Rujula, M.B. Gavela, P. Hernandez; hep-ph/9811390,
  V. Barger, K. Whisnant; hep-ph/9812273; Phys.Rev.D59:093007,1999.
  Norbert Schmitz; MPI-PHE-98-15, Feb 1999; hep-ex/9902027.
  V. Barger, Yuan-Ben Dai, K. Whisnant, Bing-Lin Young; hep-ph/9901388;
  Hoang Ngoc Long, Takeo Inami; hep-ph/9902475.
  V. Barger; MADPH-99-1103, Jan 1999; hep-ph/9903250.
  R. Adhikari, G. Omanovic; Phys.Rev.D59:073003,1999.
  S. Dutta, R. Gandhi, B. Mukhopadhyaya; MRI-PHY-P990512, May 1999;
  P. Fisher, B. Kayser, K. McFarland; LNS-99-288, Jun 1999; hep-ph/9906244.
  C. Giunti; DFTT-35-99, Jun 1999; hep-ph/9906456.
  V. Barger, S. Geer, K. Whisnant; FERMILAB-PUB-99-187-T, Jun 1999;
  Morimitsu Tanimoto; hep-ph/9906516.
  John Ellis; CERN-TH-99-225, Jun 1999; hep-ph/9907458.
Last updated 14th Oct, 1999
S. Geer