Strong Authentication at Fermilab
Chapter 5: Using your CRYPTOCard
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Chapter Contents

Chapter 5: Using your CRYPTOCard
  5.1 How does your CRYPTOCard Work?
  5.2 Caring for your CRYPTOCard
  5.3 Usage Notes
  5.4 The First Thing to do: Reset your PIN
    5.4.1 Resetting Initial PIN
    5.4.2 Resetting PIN (General)
  5.5 Log in Using CRYPTOCard (the First Time)
    5.5.1 Original Style Card
    5.5.2 New Style Card (March 2002)
  5.6 Log in Using CRYPTOCard (Subsequently)
    5.6.1 Original Style Card
    5.6.2 New Style Card (March 2002)
  5.7 Reauthenticate using your CRYPTOCard
  5.8 Resync your CRYPTOCard
    5.8.1 Original Style Card
    5.8.2 New Style Card (March 2002)

 

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Chapter 5: Using your CRYPTOCard


Strengthened machines are configured to respond in portal mode when requests for access come from unKerberized machines. In portal mode the strengthened machine acts as a secure gateway into the strengthened realm, requiring a single-use password for authentication. A CRYPTOCard is a calculator-style, battery-powered device used for generating a single-use password.

To obtain a CRYPTOCard, fill out the Request Form for Crypto Card at http://computing.fnal.gov/xms/?pid=100377.

As of March 2002, new CRYPTOCards operate a little differently from those previously sent from the vendor. When you get your CRYPTOCard, first carefully read the instruction card that comes with it.

5.1 How does your CRYPTOCard Work?

Before we issue you your CRYPTOCard, we initialize it and synchronize it with the Kerberos Key Distribution Center1 (KDC). This process (a) associates the card with your principal, (b) sets an initial PIN on the card, and (c) creates a secret encryption key stored in both the KDC and the card.

The KDC and the CRYPTOCard operate independently on the identical strings using the shared key, and they produce the same result. Roughly half of this resulting string is to be used as the first one-time password, the other half (plus/minus some overlapping bits) is stored for later use as the next string on which both parties will operate. And so on.

The string on which the shared key operates is called the challenge. The portion of the result used as the password is called the response. The first challenge is chosen by the KDC when you use the card.

5.2 Caring for your CRYPTOCard

You will find printed instructions with your new CRYPTOCard. Carefully read Use and Care of your RB-1 Authentication Token, and Battery Replacement.

Here we highlight a few points that we think are important:

5.3 Usage Notes

5.4 The First Thing to do: Reset your PIN

The CRYPTOCard comes with an initial PIN (personal code to prevent use by other individuals) that you are required to reset. The minimum length of the PIN is four digits, but it can be as long as eight. When entering your PIN, you are limited to seven consecutive wrong tries before lockout.

5.4.1 Resetting Initial PIN

Original Style Card

  1. Press the ON/OFF button to turn on the card, enter your initial PIN and press ENT.
  2. At the prompt New PIN? enter a new PIN and press ENT.
  3. At the Verify prompt, enter your new PIN again and press ENT. The card displays a preconfigured string which you can ignore.
  4. If you're not going to log on now, you can turn off the card or let it do so automatically.

New Style Card (March 2002)

  1. Press CHG PIN (actually any of the 4 keys PASSWORD, DIG SIG, MENU and CHG PIN will work).
  2. At the prompt: PIN? enter your initial PIN.
  3. At the prompt: New PIN? enter a new PIN and press ENT.
  4. At the Verify prompt, enter your new PIN again and press ENT. It displays: Card OK
  5. If you're not going to log on now, you can turn off the card or let it do so automatically.

5.4.2 Resetting PIN (General)

Original Style Card

For subsequent PIN changes, turn the card on and enter your PIN followed by ENT. At the Fermilab prompt, press CPIN and proceed from step (2) for this style card, above.

New Style Card (March 2002)

For subsequent PIN changes, turn the card on using the CHG PIN button, and enter your (old) PIN followed by ENT. At the New PIN? prompt proceed from step (3) for this style card, above.

5.5 Log in Using CRYPTOCard (the First Time)

5.5.1 Original Style Card

  1. Turn on your CRYPTOCard and enter your new PIN, followed by ENT.
  2. The card is configured to display the id Fermilab. Press ENT when you see it. You'll see a preconfigured challenge, which you can ignore.
  3. Run ssh or slogin normally on your nonKerberized machine to the strengthened host, and enter your login id at the host prompt. The first time you use the card, the host system (in portal mode) displays the message:

    Press CH/MAC and enter this on the keypad: [12345678]

    Enter the displayed response:

    where 12345678 is a sample eight-digit challenge.

  4. On your CRYPTOCard, press CH/MAC, then type the challenge displayed on the host system into your CRYPTOCard. If you mistype, press CLR and re-enter the challenge. Press ENT to get a response of eight hex digits.
  5. Enter the CRYPTOCard response at the host system prompt (it is not case-sensitive). Press Return, and you should be logged in with Kerberos tickets.
  6. Turn off your CRYPTOCard, or let it do so automatically.

5.5.2 New Style Card (March 2002)

Before the initial login, you need to synchronize the card with our KDC.

  1. Run ssh or slogin normally on your nonKerberized machine to the strengthened host, and enter your login id at the host prompt. The host system (in portal mode) displays an eight-digit challenge.
  2. Press MENU to turn on your CRYPTOCard, and enter your PIN as required, followed by ENT.`
  3. Ignore the Adj LCD or Contrast prompt (the latter appears on cards issued after November 2002) and press MENU again.
  4. At the prompt ReSync, press ENT.
  5. At the prompt Ready (for cards issued Nov. `02 or later, you see a flashing cursor instead), key the challenge displayed on your monitor into your CRYPTOCard, and press ENT to get a response of eight hex digits. (If you mistype, press CLR and re-enter the challenge. CLR clears one character at a time, or it will clear the whole field if held down for more than one second.)
  6. The response (password) associated with that challenge now displays on the CRYPTOCard.
  7. Enter the CRYPTOCard response at the host system prompt (it is not case-sensitive). Press Return, and you should be logged in with Kerberos tickets.

5.6 Log in Using CRYPTOCard (Subsequently)

5.6.1 Original Style Card

  1. Turn on your CRYPTOCard and enter your PIN, followed by ENT. (You are limited to seven consecutive wrong-PIN tries before lockout.)
  2. The card is configured to display the id Fermilab. Press ENT when you see it. The CRYPTOCard displays a challenge.
  3. Run ssh or slogin normally on your nonKerberized machine to the strengthened host, and enter your userid at the host prompt. The host system (in portal mode) displays the message:

    CryptoCard RB-1

    Press ENTER and compare this challenge to the one on your display

    Challenge is [12345678], Enter the displayed response:

    where 12345678 is a sample eight-digit challenge.

  4. Compare the challenge on the host to the one on the CRYPTOCard:
    1. If the challenges are the same, press Ent again on the CRYPTOCard to get the response. (In this case the KDC and your CRYPTOCard are synchronized. As long as they remain in sync, the CRYPTOCard will generate the right response.)
    2. If the challenges are different (you may see all zeroes), press CH/MAC on the CRYPTOCard and enter the challenge displayed on the host system into the card. (This resynchronizes the CRYPTOCard.) Then press Ent to get the response.
  5. Enter the response at the host system prompt. Press Return and you should be logged in with tickets.
  6. Turn off your CRYPTOCard, or let it do so automatically.

5.6.2 New Style Card (March 2002)

There are two ways to use the CRYPTOCard to log in, one using the PASSWORD key and the other using DIG SIG.

PASSWORD

IN THIS MODE, THE CRYPTOCARD DOES NOT DISPLAY THE CHALLENGE!

  1. Run ssh or slogin normally on your nonKerberized machine to the strengthened host, and enter your userid at the host prompt. The host system (in portal mode) displays the message:

    Press ENTER and compare this challenge to the one on your display: [12345678]

    Enter the displayed response:

    where 12345678 is a sample eight-digit challenge.

  2. Press PASSWORD to turn the CRYPTOCard on
  3. At the PIN? prompt, enter your PIN followed by ENT.
  4. The card is configured to display the id Fermilab. Press ENT when you see it.
  5. The card now displays the response, not the challenge! If the card is synchronized with the KDC, this response will work. If not, using DIG SIG (below) will work, but before ever using PASSWORD again, you'll have to resynchronize your card.
  6. Enter the response at the host system prompt. Press Return and you should be logged in with tickets.

DIG SIG

This method works even if your card has gotten out of sync (assuming that initial synchronization has been done), but it does not resynchronize your card for future logins. A drawback to this method is that you have to key the challenge into your CRYPTOCard each time.

  1. Run ssh or slogin normally on your nonKerberized machine to the strengthened host, and enter your userid at the host prompt. The host system (in portal mode) displays the message:

    Press ENTER and compare this challenge to the one on your display: [12345678]

    Enter the displayed response:

    where 12345678 is a sample eight-digit challenge.

  2. Press DIG SIG to turn the CRYPTOCard on
  3. At the PIN? prompt, enter your PIN followed by ENT.
  4. At the Ready prompt, enter the challenge (displayed on your monitor) into the CRYPTOCard, and press ENT. (If you mistype, press CLR and re-enter the challenge. CLR clears one character at a time, or it will clear the whole field if held down for more than one second.)
  5. The card now displays the response.
  6. Enter the response at the host system prompt. Press Return and you should be logged in with tickets.

5.7 Reauthenticate using your CRYPTOCard

Most FNAL systems no longer allow incoming telnet connections but instead rely on SSH to handle both interactive logins and file transfers (with scp). Since incoming connections using CRYPTOCards are only supported using ssh or slogin and since, by default, these connections are encrypted so text typed over the ssh link is not visible in the clear on the Internet, you can safely use kinit, entering your password, to re-authenticate as needed.

5.8 Resync your CRYPTOCard

5.8.1 Original Style Card

Commence the login procedure as outlined in 5.6 Log in Using CRYPTOCard (Subsequently). If the challenges are different, press CH/MAC on the CRYPTOCard and enter the challenge displayed on the host system into the card. (This resynchronizes the CRYPTOCard.) Then press Ent to get the response.

5.8.2 New Style Card (March 2002)

  1. Run ssh or slogin normally on your nonKerberized machine to the strengthened host, and enter your login id at the host prompt. The host system (in portal mode) displays an eight-digit challenge.
  2. Press MENU to turn on your CRYPTOCard, and enter your PIN as required, followed by ENT.
  3. Ignore the Adj LCD prompt and press MENU again.
  4. At the prompt ReSync, press ENT.
  5. At the prompt Ready, key the challenge displayed on your monitor into your CRYPTOCard, and press ENT. (If you mistype, press CLR and re-enter the challenge. CLR clears one character at a time, or it will clear the whole field if held down for more than one second.)

Your card is now resynchronized and the correct response now displays on the CRYPTOCard. You can complete your login at this point by typing the response at the host system prompt, followed by Return.

1The KDC is the "keymaster" of the Kerberos authentication service for all the machines in the realm. It runs on a server maintained by Fermilab's computing security team. Every principal and every initialized CRYPTOCard shares a unique encryption key with the KDC, allowing the KDC to verify the identity of each user/service request.

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